Pierre Bourdieu, Questions de sociologie , trad. Heilbron, G.
Fleck, V. Karady and M. Meyerlarts and D.
Roig-Sanz eds. Blakesley ed. Sociologies of Poetry Translation. Emerging perspectives , London, Bloomsbury, , p. Schildgen and R. Hexter ed.
Pierre Bourdieu and Sociology of Sports
Exercice, partage, contestation , Rennes, Presses universitaires de Rennes, , pp. Conceptions of Authorship around and , Louvain, Peters, , pp. Essays from India and France , Routledge, , pp. Jahrhundert , Akademie Verlag, , pp. In Jacques Julliard et Michel Winock dir.
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Practice has a logic, which is not that of the logician. This has to be acknowledged in order to avoid asking of it more logic than it can give, thereby condemning oneself either to wring incoherencies out of it or to thrust a forced coherence upon it. As we have pointed out in the introduction, the state has encouraged and still does certain forms of pedagogical actions for students with difficulties that are based on their psychological or cognitive specifics.
In turn, with regard to teacher training, prescriptions both by ministerial offices and certain educational researches have been transmitted until today. Teachers could be accused of not being receptive enough to the prescriptions proposed to them, of failing to understand what is expected of them, of making no efforts to change their practices These reproaches, though not necessarily explicit, are nevertheless part of the beliefs found in various areas of teacher education and research.
In our view, these recriminations stem from an epistemological error: the mentalist specialization that teachers supposedly should have presupposes a strictly logical rationality of the teaching practice that does not formally correspond to the act of teaching. As stated by Bachelard , p. Teachers are not free actors, nor are they independent of the conditions in which their actions develop. Teachers who teach students with learning difficulties are thus confronted with a paradoxical situation because, firstly, the prescriptions they receive mentalist fail to give them any means of action and, secondly, they cannot act according to the rules of a reason of action that fails to consider its implication in the practical world.
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This model is situated at the intercept of two theoretical fields: the didactics field, which studies teaching phenomena by considering the roles played by the conceptual structure of knowledge and the organization of study mechanisms on how school knowledge emerges and is appropriated by students BROUSSEAU, ; and the anthropological field, which deals with the cultural dimension in which the practical logics of teachers and students are situated and considers the backgrounds that - like habitus - inscribe these logics in a universe of capacities and procedures.
Teaching practice must be understood as the effect of a double coercion: both didactic and non-didactic. Didactic: the teacher acts according to the knowledge to be taught, the didactic conditions characterizing the teaching situation proposed, the management of didactic time, and the obstacles students may face during knowledge acquisition. Nondidactic: teachers also make decisions of pedagogical order based on their political references, social representations, perceptions concerning their students, ideas related to school failure The study of this double dimension, i.
Ordinary language passes unnoticed, because it is so ordinary, but it carries in its vocabulary and syntax a petrified philosophy of the social, always ready to spring out of the common words or complex expressions bade up of common words, that the sociologist inevitably uses.
How has the profile of the student with difficulties been constructed? Has it always existed?
From the viewpoint of the historical construction of special education, is it possible to identify relevant periods, continuities and ruptures? Following Bourdieu , we propose the following hypothesis: what is hidden in ordinary language in a kind of social unconscious emerges in the study of the genesis of a field in this case, the area of special education as the struggles and essential issues become more explicit. How are students with difficulties defined? What is said about them? What discourses do institutions direct to teachers concerning their work against school? What intervention resources are recommended?
Students attend this particular school circulars of August 29, and April 24, , circulars No. In these classes, the teaching of general subjects is adapted from secondary school programs. However, at the end of the school year, these students take the same exams as those who attend regular classes. Oxford : Polity Press. Paris: Ed. Translated as Bourdieu, a. Calhoun , E. LiPuma and M. Postone eds Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives, pp. Paris: Seuil. Translated as Bourdieu, P.
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Social Suffering in Contemporary Society. Oxford : Polity.
Oxford : Blackwell. Chamboredon and J. Paris: Mouton-Bordas.
Pierre Bourdieu, sociologue
Translated as Bourdieu et al. Passeron The Craft of Sociology. New York : Walter de Gruyter.
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Passeron La Reproduction. Translated as Bourdieu and Passeron, Passeron Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. Wacquant b An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology. Cassirer, E. Translated into English as Cassirer, E. Berlin : Bruno Cassirer. Translated as Cassirer, E. Open Court Pub. Paris: Minuit. Clark, T. Delsaut, Y. Paris: Le Temps des Cerises. Dubois, J.